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Blog By Olivia Ross

Here I bring the research I find interesting...

RESEARCH: COPD patients, 38 altogether, were enrolled in the study and were randomly separated into two groups: the control group (n=18) and the treatment group (n=20). In this randomized controlled clinical test (semiexperimental design), the control group did not do any treadmill exercise training (TET). The treatment group exercised on a treadmill in the clinic, 2 times a week for 8 weeks. As the patient ran on the electrical treadmill - Sole treadmill - F80 and F85 to exhaustion, vital signs were evaluated by digital monitoring devices. The treadmill was set at a minimum speed and 0° elevation. First, the patients warmed up by performing stretched exercises for 5 minutes and then commenced exercise. The speed was gradually increased according to the patient's ability and tolerance. He/she was under complete supervision, and the training program was stopped upon the patient's request or critical changes in vital signs. All patients were given complete instructions on the testing procedure before signing a written informed consent. Each subject arrived 1 hour prior to the exercise for instructions and familiarization. Prior to the familiarization process, subjects gave an informed consent and filled out a medical history questionnaire. Additionally, data including age (yrs), height (cm), weight (kg), resting heart rate (beats/min), resting blood pressure (mmHg) and smoking experience (years) were collected. Severity of COPD was estimated by using spirometric parameters. If 50%H FEV1<80% and FEV1/ FVC<0 the patient had moderate, and if 30%H FEV1<50% and FEV1/ FVC< 0.7 the patient had severe COPD. In order to determine VO2 peak, the patient should run on a 1 mile distance and the time duration of 1 mile running was recorded and entered in the Rockport formula. Due to the inability of COPD patients to complete the 1 mile distance, the duration of running any distance was calculated instead of a mile proportionally.

Therefore, in each group VO2 peak, was assessed via a modified Rockport formula before and after 8 weeks of training. The calculated VO2 peak is not equal to actual VO2 peak, therefore, we determined the change of VO2 peak. During the exercise test, no oxygen was administered to the subjects of either group. The formula used to calculate the VO2 max is:
• 132.853 - (0.0769 × Weight) - (0.3877 × Age) + (6.315 × Gender) - (3.2649 × Time) - (0.1565 × Heart rate) Where: Weight is in pounds (lbs), Gender Male = 1 and Female = 0, Time is expressed in minutes and 100ths of a minute, Heart rate is in beats/minute, Age is in years.


According to data analysis, there was no significant difference in the mean age between the control group (7 males and 11 females; 52.17 ± 11.6 yrs.) and the treatment group (11 males and 9 females; 52.1 ± 10.7 yrs.). Of 38 participants, 24 subjects (63.15%) had past history of COPD for 10 years. More than 80% of subjects had severe COPD (30%H FEV1<50% and FEV1/ FVC< 0.7), and there was no difference between the two groups. Fifteen subjects (83.3%) in the control group and 18 subjects (90%) in the treatment group were in severe while the remaining were in mild states of the disease. During the study period, no changes were made in the prescribed drugs. All subjects were using bronchodilators and at least 30% of them were using corticosteroids. the mean VO2 peak before the training program had no significant difference in the control and treatment subjects. But, the mean VO2 peak after the training program in the treatment group (Mean 31.73 SD ± 6.46) was significantly (N<0.001) higher than the control group (mean ± SD 18.01± 7.04). Table 1 shows that a significant change in VO2 peak was only seen in the treatment group.

More results coming...

My Trip to Washington

Many years ago I was one of 44 kids who were selected from around the country to participate in the Epilepsy Foundation’s "Kids Speak Up" program. The event took place on a spring day in Washington, D.C.
As I remember... My parents and I arrived at the hotel on Monday afternoon and registered for the conference. We had dinner and a chance to meet other kids with epilepsy. We met Mike Simmel of the Harlem Wizards. He is a professional basketball player who has epilepsy. There was a caricaturist who drew pictures of us doing our favorite activity. Mike showed me how to play tennis and later in the day we were running on a treadmill. In fact that was the moment I got to like running and treadmills, and it's interesting that today I still run on a treadmill but it's a different model Sole f63. There were a few other speakers and they told us how important it was that we spread our message of what it is like to have epilepsy. The next day we had breakfast and listened to a talk by Congressman Steny Hoyer. He is from Maryland’s 5th district and a real advocate for people with epilepsy. He told us he was working on a reauthorization of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). The Supreme Court doesn’t believe that the ADA should protect people with epilepsy. He believes it should and is working toward a solution. The people from the Epilepsy Foundation spoke a little about what we were going to be doing on Wednesday when we visited our congressmen and senators.

My dad and I got to go have some fun, but my mom stayed at the hotel and attended "lobby school." We got on a bus and toured the US Capitol. Our guides were staff members of Senator John Rockefeller of West Virginia. We learned a lot of history in the Capitol tour. We went to the rotunda, the old House chamber, the old Supreme Court chamber and the crypt underneath the rotunda. I liked the crypt because it has lots of exhibits about the Capitol and its history. I even got my picture taken at the center of the crypt which is the geographical center of Washington DC.

We ate lunch in the Dirksen Senate Office Building. We got back to the hotel and then split up at tables by state. The staff told us again about how to deliver our message to the congressmen and senators. They gave us our schedules for meeting with everyone. We rehearsed what we were going to say and how we would say it. Some families had staff members going with them but we thought we could do it on our own. I went back to our room and changed to go swimming. We went out to a restaurant for dinner and practiced our presentation.

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